MARKETING MIX FOR CHOCOLATE PRODUCTS




 MARKETING MIX FOR CHOCOLATE PRODUCTS
The purpose of the marketing mix should be to create a product that offers the greatest value for the price,
according to the taste and eating habits of the target consumers, which will be easily accessible, attractive and
desirable for consumers. In the struggle for a better market position, based on the results from the survey, the
following competitive steps can be implemented: Differentiation of products - through technical, informative or
distribution differentiation of products; Change in prices -


 price increases according to consumer opinion for
appropriate price and adjustment to competitors prices, for gaining a temporary advantage; Creative use of
distribution channels - using vertical integration forward or backwards, or use channels that are new and
unconventional for the industry, such as chocolate bars, bakery shops, fast food restaurants, etc.; Creating an
effective and efficient communication with customers that will build an unbreakable connection with the
community, affiliation and love for the brand product and the company.
The product
Domestic products are in the stage of maturity of the life cycle, most consumers are not familiar with
them, and are seen as cheap products, with medium to low quality, too sweet, not enough available and without a
recognizable name or brand of the product. The proposal regarding the policy of chocolate products is towards
change from commercially oriented into proactive market-oriented politics and products, which can be achieved
in two ways: Through innovation of products or their differentiation in order to adapt to the needs and wants of
consumers and separate them from competing products on the market; Through elimination or removal of
products that do not suit the needs and demands of the market.
According to the above, especially from the influence of the life cycle of products, a strategy of
modification of products can be applied by increasing the forms in which it appears, by improving quality,
adding new features and upgrade the aesthetic features. In the assortment of chocolate products a combination of
the corporate brand and individual product brand should be applied, i.e. a multi brand strategy which reduces the
risk of concentrating only on one brand of product, and also in long term it is important a complete portfolio of
chocolates to be offered. The focus of the company should be on few key product lines: milk chocolate (100gr),
boxed chocolate (150-250gr) and molded bars (30-35gr), as they are expected to be the markets with the largest
future growth. The packaging of the products can be a mixture of modern and retro design, a combination of
three colors - black and white with red detail, both to attract consumers who prefer modern and those who would
like the retro design and build a connection between the present and the past. The packaging must protect the
product from moisture, keep it fresh, be attractive and appealing, and make it easier to recognize the product and
also be appropriate if the product is bought as a gift. The success of the product or brand, according to survey
results will depend mostly on: distribution network; standards for quality; continuity of research; development of
new products and communicational support.
Figure 18. Proposal for packaging design for milk chocolate, boxed chocolate and molded bars

The price
The great importance and impact of price and price increase on gross profit in a company was proved in
1992 (McKinsey & Company, 2003) when the results of a research of 2400 companies, have shown that
increases in the price by 1% leads to increase in profits by 8%, while reduction in fixed and variable costs by 1%
leads to two times smaller increase in profits, while increasing the sold amounts by 1% leads to three times
smaller increase in profits. Considering that the price determines the scope and structure of sales and size of the
financial result in the determination of the price policy several factors should be taken into account: cost,
corporate objectives, strategy, marketing mix, product life cycle of products demand, competition, positioning,
etc. The procedure used in determining the prices of chocolate may involve several stages, including: main
objectives of the price formation, cost analysis, price analysis and competitors pricing policies. When
introducing a new or improved product to market, the company can use four alternative strategies of
price/quality (Kotler P., 2001, p. 604): 1.Strategy of high prices - high quality (premium strategy) 2.Strategy of
low cost - high quality (good value strategy), 3.Strategy of high prices - low quality (strategy of over - charge)
and 4.Strategy of low prices - low quality (strategy of economy). When the product is in the stage of maturity in
the life cycle, the main objective of the price should be - matching to the one of the competitors or beating the
competitors’ prices (Kotler P., 2001, p. 538). 


Analysis of demand show that the demand for chocolate is not
price elastic, i.e. that consumers’ are willing to pay a higher price for quality product. In terms of competition,
the company should not attack the market leaders, but fight at the level of enterprises of its size and smaller, and
in terms of pricing - determine lower prices than the ones of the market leaders, and higher prices compared to
competitors that are being attacked. Thus, as a method of pricing a combination of the value for the buyer that
can be detected through conjoint analysis and experimentationxxviii and adaptation to the competitive prices
should be applied. Simultaneously, the quality and taste of the modified products will have to justify the higher
prices. This price will occasionally have to suffer corrections, or adaptations for special events - holidays and
promotional prices for cleaning of supplies. For wholesale sales price the system of discounts can be taken into
consideration – cash discount for immediate payment, in order to maintain liquidity, and quantitative rebate for
buying larger quantities of products at once or over a period of time. The selling price to retailers can include
functional/trade discount – participation in the promotional activities of the company.
The place
The success of consumer products largely depends on the distribution. Distribution as an element of the
marketing mix brings the products to market, intensifies the demand for existing products, and provides better
position of the company on the market and others. In the design of marketing channels a great role play the
resources of the enterprise, the objectives, the nature of the product and positioning strategy. If the goal is
increasing the market share, then it is better for the company to develop direct sales to the end consumer,
because in that case the costs for the sale force are lower than in case where intermediaries are engaged. On the
other hand, if resources do not allow the company to significantly expand its retail network as an alternative
option is inclusion of intermediaries in the process, whereby instead of selective distribution, the company needs
to use intensive distribution, involving as much as possible mediators at every level of the channel. Chocolate is
a category of the product that is essentially a subject of pull - strategy, but the members of the channel allow
greater product visibility, which is of great importance because it is a conventional product and a subject of
impulse purchase. This means that the best strategy would be combination of the pull - and push – strategy. The
product should be made available in most supermarkets and discounters, and in as much as possible conventional
stores, i.e. the product should to be placed in at least all those retail outlets where products of the direct
competitors are placed. For example, the product should be placed in stŠ¾res at busy locations - near schools,
city’s downtown, near green markets, near fast-food restaurants, gas - stations, as well as kiosks, in order to
expand and deepen its distribution network, in order to maintain intensive instead of selective market presence.
According to the preferences and habits of consumers, they are willing to buy competitive brands when a
company's brand is insufficiently available, which is the most expensive price that can be paid - loss of existing
and potential customers. In the retail stores, chocolate products should be placed on a visible position, in the
same category of competitive products,


 but separated from them in specially designed and branded shelves
which will increase the visibility of products, and allow storing multiple types of the brand products together in
order to create consumer awareness for them and look more attractive than competing products. Due to the
impulse purchase of chocolate, molded bar chocolates can be placed near the pay –toll. The company should
consider placing the products in innovative channels, for example: most visited local cafes in the cities, in icecream shops, in restaurants, fast food chains, at bookstores and gift – shops, where the products can be offered as
a dessert after eating or increase enjoyment while reading a favorite book

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