ignorance is weapon but how ?


The Mexican rebel leader Pancbo Villa started out as the chief of a gang of
bandits, but after revolution broke out in Mexico in 1910, he became a
kind of folk hero-robbing trains and giving the money to the poor, leading daring raids, and charming the ladies with romantic escapades. His exploits fascinated Americans-he seemed a man from another era, part
Robin Hood, part Don Juan. After a few years of bitter fighting, however,
General Carranza emerged as the victor in the Revolution; the defeated
Villa and his troops went back horne, to the northem state of Chihuahua.
His army dwindled and he tumed to banditry again, damaging his popularity. Finally, perhaps out of desperation, he began to rail against the
United States, the gringos, whom he blamed for his troubles.
In March of 1916, Pancho Villa raided Columbus, New Mexico. Rampaging through the town, he and his gang killed seventeen American soldiers and civilians. President Woodrow Wilson, like many Americans, had
admired Villa; now, however, the bandit needed to be punished. Wilson's
advisers urged hirn to send troops into Mexico to capture Villa. 

For a
power as large as the United States, they argued, not to strike back at an
army that had invaded its territory would send the worst kind of signal.
Furthermore, they continued, many Americans saw Wilson as a pacifist, a
principle the public doubted as a response to violence; he needed to prove
his mettle and manliness by ordering the use of force.
The pressure on Wilson was strong, and before the month was out,
with the approval of the Carranza govemment, he sent an army of ten
thousand soldiers to capture Pancbo Villa. The venture was called the
Punitive Expedition, and its leader was the dashing General John J. Pershing, who had defeated guerrillas in the Philippines and Native Americans
in the American Southwest. Certainly Pershing could find and overpower
Pancho Villa.
The Punitive Expedition became a sensational story, and carloads of
U.S. reporters followed Pershing into action. The campaign, they wrote,
would be a test of American power. The soldiers carried the latest in
weaponry, communicated by radio, and were supported by reconnaissance from the air.
In the first few months, the troops split up into small units to comb the
wilds of northem Mexico. The Americans offered a $50,000 reward for information leading to Villa's capture. But the Mexican people, who had
been disillusioned with Villa when he had retumed to banditry, 

now idolized hirn for facing this mighty American army. They began to give Pershing false leads: Villa had been seen in this village, or in that mountain
hideaway, airplanes would be dispatcbed, troops would scurry after them,
and no one would ever see hirn. The wily bandit seemed to be always one
step ahead of the American military.
By the summer of that year, the expedition had swelled to 123,000
men. They suffered through the stultifying heat, the mosquitoes, the wild

 Trudging over a countryside in which they were already resented,
A starving fox ...
saw a cluster
Gf luscious-looking
grapes of purplish
Dangling above hirn on
a trellis-frarne.
He would have dearly
liked thern for his
But when he tried and
failed to reaeh the
"Ah weil, it's rnore than
likely they're not
sweetGood only for green
fools to eat!"
Wasn 't he wise to say
they were unripe
Rather than whine
and gripe?
1 621-1695
Gnce when G. K.
Chesterton's eeonornie
views were abused in
print by George
Bernard Shaw, his
friends waited in vain
for hirn to reply.
Historian Hilaire
Belloe reproaehed hirn.
"My dear BeUoe, "
Chesterton said, "f
have answered hirn.
To a rnan of Shaw's
wit, silen ce is the one
unbearable repartee. "
LAW 36 301
TI IL \CiS "'oll
TIIE C ,\ IWI:'iI,: K
An ass had once by
some aecident lost his
tai!, which was a grievous afflietion to him;
and he was everywhere
see king after it, being
fool enough to think he
could get it set on
again. He passed
through a meadow, and
afterwards got into a
garden. The gardener
seeing him, and not
able to endure the
mischief he was doing
in trampling down his
plants, fell into a
violent rage, ran to the
ass, and ne ver standing
on the ceremony of a

 cut off both his
ears, and beat him out
ofthe ground. Thus the
ass, who bemoaned the
loss of his taU, was in
far greater affiiction
when he saw himself
without ears.
rm: I'IWIl IC\ 0\
Onee, when the Tokudaiji minister of the
right was chief of the
imperial police, he was
holding a meeting of
his staff at the middle
gate when an ox
belonging to an official
named Akikane got
loose and wandered
into the ministry building. It climbed up on
302 LAW 36
they infuriated both the local people and the Mexican government. At one
point Pancho Villa hid in a mountain cave to recover from a gunshot
wound he received in a skirmish with the Mexican army; looking down
from his aerie, he could watch Pershing lead the exhausted American
troops back and forth across the mountains, never getting any closer to
their goal.
All the way into winter, Villa played his cat-and-mouse game, Americans came to see the affair as a kind of slapstick farce-in fact they began to
admire Villa again, respecting his resourcefulness in eluding a superior
force_ In January of 1917, Wilson finally ordered Pershing's withdrawal. As
the troops made their way back to American territory, rebel forces pursued
them, forcing the US. Army to use airplanes to protect its rear flanks. The
Punitive Expedition was being punished itself-it had turned into a retreat
of the most humiliating sort.
Woodrow Wilson organized the Punitive Expedition as a show of force: He
would teach Pancho Villa a lesson and in the process show the world that
no one, large or small, could attack the mighty United States and get away
with it. The expedition would be over in a few weeks, and Villa would be
That was not how it played out. The longer the expedition took, the
more it focused attention on the Americans' incompetence and on Villa's
cleverness_ Soon what was forgotten was not Villa but the raid that had
started it all. As a minor annoyance became an international embarrassment, and the enraged Americans dispatched more troops, the imbalance
between the size of the pursuer and the size of the pursued-who still managed to stay free-made the affair a joke. And in the end this white eIephant of an army had to lumber out of Mexico, humiliated. The Punitive
Expedition did the opposite of what it set out to do: It left Villa not only
free but more popular than ever.
What could Wilson have done differently? He could have pressured
the Carranza government to catch Villa for him_ Alternatively, since many
Mexicans had tired of Villa before the Punitive Expedition began, he could
have worked quietly with them and won their support for a much smaller
raid to capture the bandit. 

He could have organized a trap on the American side of the border, anticipating the next raid. Or he could have ignored
the matter altogether for the time being, waiting for the Mexicans themselves to do away with Villa of their own accord.
Remember: You choose to let things bother you_ You can just as easily
choose not to notice the irritating offender, to consider the matter trivial
and unworthy of your interest. That is the powerful move. What you do
not react to cannot drag you down in a futile engagement. Your pride is not
involved. The best lesson you can teach an irritating gnat is to consign it to
oblivion by ignoring it. If it is impossible to ignore (Pancho Villa had in fact
killed American citizens), then conspire in secret to do away with it, but
never inadvertently draw attention to the bothersome insect that will go
away or die on its own. If you waste time and energy in such entanglements, it is your own fault. Learn to play the card of disdain and turn your
back on what cannot harm you in the long run.
Just think-it cost your government $130 million to try to get me. I took them
over rough, hilly country. Sometimes for fifty miles at a stretch they had no water.
They had nothing but the sun and mosquitoes .... And nothing was gained.
Pancho Villa, 1878-1 923
In the year 1527, King Henry VIII of England decided he had to find a
way to get rid of his wife, Catherine of Aragon. Catherine had failed to produce a son, a male heir who would ensure the continuance of his dynasty,
and Henry thought he knew why: He had read in the Bible the passage,
"And if a man shall take his brother's wife, it is an unclean thing: he hath
uncovered his brother's nakedness; they shall be childless." Before marrying Henry, Catherine had married his older brother Arthur, but Arthur
had died five months later. Henry had waited an appropriate time, then
had married his brother's widow.
Catherine was the daughter of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of
Spain, and by marrying her Henry had kept alive a valuable alliance. Now,
however, Catherine had to assure hirn that her brief marriage with Arthur
had never been consummated. Otherwise Henry would view their relationship as incestuous and their marriage as null and void. Catherine insisted that she had remained a virgin through her marriage to Arthur, and
Pope Clement VII supported her by giving his blessing to the union, which
he could not have done had he considered it incestuous. Yet after years of
marriage to Henry, Catherine had failed to produce a son, and in the early
1520s she had entered menopause. To the king this could only mean one
thing: She had lied about her virginity, their union was incestuous, and
God had punished them.
There was another reason why Henry wanted to get rid of Catherine:
He had fallen in love with a younger woman, Anne Boleyn. Not only was
he in love with her, but if he married her he could still hope to sire a legitimate son. 

The marriage to Catherine had to be annulled. For this, however, Henry had to apply to the Vatican. But Pope Clement would never
annul the marriage.
By the summer of 1527, rumors spread throughout Europe that Henry
was about to attempt the impossible-to annul his marriage against
Clement's wishes. Catherine would never abdicate, let alone voluntarily
enter a nunnery, as Henry had urged her. But Henry had his own strategy:
He stopped sleeping in the same bed with Catherine, since he considered
her his sister-in-Iaw, not his lawful wife. He insisted on calling her Princess
the dais where the chief
was seated and lay
there, chewing its cud.
Everyone was sure that
this was some grave
portent. and urged that
the ox be sent to a yinyang diviner. However.
the prime minister, the
father ofthe minister of
the right, said, "An ox
has no discrimination.
It has legs-there is
nowhere it won't go. It
does not make sense to
deprive an underpaid
official of the wretched
ox he needs in order to
attend court. " He
returned the ox to its
owner and changed the
maUing on which it had
lain. No untoward
event of any kind
occurred afterward.
They say that if you see
a prodigy and do not
treat it as such,

 its character as a prodigy is
LAW 36 303
And in this view it is
advisable to let everyone
of your acquaintancewhether man or
woman-feel now and
then that you could
very welt dispense with
their company. This
will consolidate
friendship. Nay, with
most people there will
be no harm in occasionalty mixing a grain
of disdain with your
treatment of them; that
will make them value
your friendship alt the
more. Chi non stima
vien stirnato, as a
subtle Itahan proverb
has it-to disregard is
to win regard. But if we
realty think very highly
of a person, we shoutd
conceal it from hirn
hke a crime. This is not
a very gratifying thing
to do, but it is right.
Why, a dog will not
bear being treated too
kindly, let alone a man!
1 788-1860
'1'111': \10" " f: \ A1\1J
'!' I I I-: P I'
A monkey was carrying two handfuts of
peas. One httle pea
dropped out. He tried
to pick it up, and spilt
twenty. He tried to pick
up the twenty, and spilt
them alt. Then he lost
his temper, scattered the
peas in alt direclions,
and ran away.
1 828-1910
304 LAW 36
Dowager of Wales, her title as Arthur's widow. Finally, in 153 1, he banished her from court and shipped her off to a distant castle. The pope ordered rum to return her to court, on pain of excommunication, the most
severe penalty a Catholic could suffer. Henry not only ignored this threat,
he insisted that his marriage to Catherine had been dissolved, and in 1533
he married Anne Boleyn.
Clement refused to recognize the marriage, but Henry did not care.
He no longer recognized the pope's authority, and proceeded to break
with the Roman Catholic Church, establishing the Church of England in
its stead, with the king as the head of the new church. And so, not surprisingly, the newly formed Church of England proclaimed Anne Boleyn England's rightful queen.
The pope tried every threat in the book, but nothing worked. Henry
simply ignored him. Clement fumed-no one had ever treated him so contemptuously. Henry had humiliated hirn and he had no power of recourse.
Even excommunication (which he constantly threatened but never carried
out) would no longer matter.
Catherine too feit the devastating sting of Henry's disdain. She tried to
fight back, but in appealing to Henry her words fell on deaf ears, and soon
they fell on no one's. Isolated from the court, ignored by the king, mad
with anger and frustration, Catherine slowly deteriorated, and finally died
in January of 1536, from a cancerous tumor of the heart.

When you pay attention to a person, the two of you become partners of
sorts, each moving in step to the actions and reactions of the other. In the
process you lose your initiative. It is a dynamic of all interactions: By acknowledging other people, even if only to fight with them, you open yourself to their influence. Had Henry locked horns with Catherine, he would
have found hirnself mired in endless arguments that would have weakened
his resolve and eventually worn rum down. (Catherine was a strong, stubborn woman.) Had he set out to convince Clement to change rus verdict on
the marriage's validity, or tried to compromise and negotiate with hirn, he
would have gotten bogged down in Clement's favorite tactic: playing for
time, promising flexibility, but actually getting what popes always gottheir way.
Henry would have none of this. He played a devastating power
game-total disdain. By ignoring people you cancel them out. This unsettles and infuriates them-but since they have no dealings with you, there is
no thing they can do.
This is the offensive aspect of the law. Playing the card of contempt is
immensely powerful, for it lets you determine the conditions of the conflict.
The war is waged on your terms. This is the ultimate power pose: You are
the king, and you ignore what offends you. Watch how this tactic infuriates
people-half of what they do is to get your attention, and when you withhold it from them, they flounder in frustration.

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